The Most Mighty Rivers In Alaska… And Beyond


An aerial photo shows the twists and turns of the Selawik River in Alaska. (STEVE HILLEBRAND/USFWS)

The following appears in the April issue of Alaska Sporting Journal: 


The mighty Missouri. The mighty Mississippi. The mighty Yukon. The U.S. has a mighty lot of mighty rivers. The mainstems, or trunks, of 38 rivers in the United States are at least 500 miles long. They and other rivers bring clean drinking water, economic health, food for many native people, transportation, and a mighty lot of recreation – especially on national wildlife refuges.

While not all of the nation’s legendary waterways are federally protected, this year’s celebration of the 50th anniversary of the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act is a great time to get onto a river to fish, hunt, boat or just see the greatness of America.

Here’s a snapshot of some river recreation on America’s national wildlife refuges, managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Paddlers navigate rapids on Alaska’s Sheenjek River, a National Wild and Scenic River. The river lies within the Arctic and Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuges, part of a vast maze of waterways in Alaska and in the Lower 48. (CHRIS PALMER)


“In northwest Alaska, the rivers teem seasonally with fish of various kinds: salmon, sheefish, whitefish, northern pike, Dolly Varden,” says Susan Georgette, manager of Selawik National Wildlife Refuge. “I often tell people that living here is like seeing North America in its primordial state.” 

The 2.15-million-acre Selawik Refuge is on the Arctic Circle to the east of Kotzebue Sound and extends east to the headwaters of the Selawik River and the Continental Divide. The heart of the refuge is a vast complex of wetlands and lowland, rich habitat for wildlife.

The refuge gives visitors a chance to explore and discover the nature of Alaska on their own. Here you might see moose or muskoxen. The Western Arctic caribou herd is the largest in Alaska and seasonally roams through the refuge. Spring brings birds to the Arctic to nest, including some Asiatic species rarely seen anywhere else in the United States. Fish some 22,000 ponds and two large river deltas for Arctic char, chum, whitefish and grayling and northern pike. Bringing in a 40- to 50-pound inconnu is not uncommon. 

“This state, and all its refuges, are so huge, yet there are very few roads,” says Heather Bartlett, acting deputy manager of Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge, which is bisected by the Yukon and Porcupine Rivers. “Because of this, rivers become the roads. People use them as primary travel corridors. In the summer, travel is by boat and raft. In the winter, people travel by snowmachine, skis and dog teams.” 

The Sheenjek is among the refuge’s major rivers.

A remote 8.6-million-acre wetland complex nestled between the White and Brooks Mountain ranges, Yukon Flats Refuge is a challenging destination in any season. But oh, the rewards: chances to see Dall sheep, moose, bear, wolves, wolverines and caribou. You can fish on some 20,000 lakes, ponds and wetlands for northern pike, Chinook, coho and chum salmon, plus Dolly Varden, among other species.

An Iñupiaq woman fillets a northern pike along the Selawik River at Selawik National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska. The National Wild and Scenic Rivers Council designate much of the Selawik as a wild river. (DAN PRINCE/USFWS)


“What makes the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge so unique is that you travel into the beating heart of two of the Southeast’s most pristine rivers – the Suwannee River and the St. Marys,” says refuge manager Michael Lusk. “Both are important for wildlife and people.”

“For example, the Suwannee River serves as important habitat for the threatened Gulf sturgeon, while the St. Marys River provides habitat for the endangered Atlantic and shortnose sturgeon. Both of these rivers, because they are so pristine, offer excellent fishing and boating.”

A day or an overnight paddling trip through the Okefenokee is the experience of a lifetime. Alligators glide through tea-colored water. Herons and egrets wade through tall grasses and water lilies. Bears roam through hammocks and islands. The refuge has seven overnight shelters and three islands available for wildlife viewing and exploration in the swamp’s interior.

You can hunt seasonally in three areas: The Suwannee Canal Recreation Area (Eastside), the Pocket (Westside) and the Cowhouse Unit (Northside). Depending on where you choose, you can hunt for deer, turkey and small game, or take your try at feral hog hunting.

Fish and Wildlife Service biologist Randy Brown prepares to fish for Dolly Varden on the Canning River. The river flows along Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. (KATRINA LIEBICH/USFWS)


The Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge, along 261 miles of what may be America’s most celebrated river, is a hub of outdoor recreation and a boon to the area’s economic vitality. Divided into four districts, the 240,000-acre Upper Mississippi River Refuge runs from the confluence of the Chippewa River in Wisconsin to near Rock Island in Illinois. 

Observation decks and canoe and bike trails are just some of the ways that visitors can view wildlife. Boating may offer the most intimate look at the river system. The refuge is known for its waterfowl hunting and has year-round fishing, including famed ice fishing.

Marked canoe trails wind through the refuge’s marshes and backwater areas. The annual Great River Rumble (July 28-August 4) takes paddlers from Keosauqua, Iowa, to Hannibal, Missouri, down the Des Moines and Mississippi Rivers. The route passes through Upper Mississippi River Refuge.


The Blackwater River and its marshes attract tens of thousands of waterfowl each winter along the Atlantic Flyway. “In the dead of winter, you will find wildlife watchers and waterfowl hunters alike attracted to the overwintering flocks,” says Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge manager Marcia Pradines.

Winter is hardly the only time to visit the refuge. The number of migratory songbirds peaks in late April and early May. Along with white-tailed deer fawns, usually twins, eaglets fledge from late May to the middle of June. Osprey have returned in the spring from their wintering grounds. Autumn colors peak in October and November brings tundra swans from Northwest Canada.

You can bike several routes – some are perfect for novices, others for experienced cyclists – all on a loop route along the paved Wildlife Drive. You can hunt for deer, turkey and waterfowl on some areas of the refuge. Fishing and crabbing from boats are allowed seasonally.


Say Parker River National Wildlife Refuge and people think Plum Island. The barrier beach island is just part of the refuge’s approximately 4,700 acres that include sandy beach and dune habitat, cranberry bog, maritime forest and the Great Marsh, the largest continuous salt marsh north of Long Island Sound. The refuge attracts hundreds of songbirds, shorebirds and waterfowl. 

Spring and fall are favorite paddling seasons since migratory birds are plentiful and mosquitoes and horseflies are not. Waterfowl hunting is available in designated salt marsh areas of the refuge during state seasons, and the refuge offers some of the area’s finest surf fishing.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service biologist Bill Carter shows off a sheefish he caught on the Selawik River in Alaska’s Selawik National Wildlife Refuge. There are endless fishing opportunities in the state’s refuge rivers. (DAN PRINCE/USFWS)


The Missouri River, at more than 2,400 miles, is the longest river in North America. People have depended on the river and its tributaries for sustenance and transportation for more than 12,000 years. 

Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge encompasses more than 17,000 acres of riverine habitat along the river and consists of 15 units, most of them along the lower Missouri River. What recreation it offers!

Hunting opportunities abound: Deer, turkey, waterfowl, upland birds and small game. Scour lakes and ponds created and replenished by the Missouri River give you the chance to fish for crappie, bass catfish, carp and more throughout the year. 

See migratory birds in the fall and spring in these parts. Beaver, bobcat and other secretive wildlife travel along the shore and in the water, especially in early morning or late evening. Trails bring you to the perfect places to watch what the river reveals. Don’t forget to take photos!


Thousands of people each year, especially kayakers and canoeists, use the 9 miles of the Niobrara River that flow eastward across Fort Niobrara National Wildlife Refuge. Designated a National Scenic River, National Wilderness Area and a National Recreation Trail, this portion of the river brings people from around the world for relaxing float trips that can be completed in just a few hours. They find the deep canyon and river full of native vegetation and animals refreshing for the soul. They often drive the 3.5-mile Wildlife Drive to see bison, elk, deer and prairie dogs. In April and May, male sharp-tailed grouse and greater prairie-chickens display on courting areas known as a lek.


The 4.5-mile segment of Darby Creek at John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge at Tinicum winds through the largest freshwater tidal marsh in Pennsylvania before flowing into the Delaware River. See migratory birds such as warblers, herons, egrets and sandpipers, as well as bald eagles, kingfishers and waterfowl. 

Enjoy great fishing along the way. Refuge waters are tidal and navigable only within two hours before and after high tide. Seasonal kayak tours let you see what a freshwater tidal marsh looks like from the vantage point of wading birds. You can see numerous points of interest from a canoe as you head from the launch site to the creek’s deep water lagoon.


Within the heartland of Caddo culture, Trinity River National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1994 to protect a remnant of the bottomland hardwood forest found along the Trinity River. The refuge’s cypress-studded lake and bottomland hardwood forest are important breeding, wintering and stopover habitat for wildlife. More than 275 species of birds live in or migrate through the bottomland forests and wetlands in eastern Texas, including some 100 species that breed here. 

Wood ducks spend their summers on the refuge, where they nest in the cavities of large cypress trees. See white-tailed deer, coyotes, bobcat and an estimated 400 types of butterflies and moths.

You might get your hiking boots muddy, but you have several easy-to-traverse trails to explore. Champion Lake is the largest for fishing. The refuge has a variety of hunts.


“Rivers are the lifeblood of a landscape,” says Tom Koerner, manager of Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge, speaking of the Green River, a major tributary of the Colorado River. “In dry climates, like Wyoming’s, almost 80 percent of wildlife species need wetlands and rivers at some point in their life cycles.”

In the shadow of the Wind River Mountain Range, Seedskadee Refuge and the Green River are vital for more than 250 species of resident and migrant wildlife. See birds in their bright breeding plumage as spring begins to melt the ice on the river. From mid-June through early September, sage grouse hens lead their young to the refuge’s wet meadows and riverine areas; hummingbirds arrive in late June and stay into the fall. Kayaking is a popular way to see the refuge. Drift boats and canoes are also perfect for fishing and wildlife watching. Don’t forget to look for moose. ASJ

Editor’s note: Martha Nudel is the chief of communications for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which works with others to conserve, protect and enhance fish, wildlife, plants and their habitats for the continuing benefit of the American people. For more information, visit, or connect with us through any of these social media channels: Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and Flickr.